Soiling Assessment in Large-Scale PV Arrays
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How much revenue is a soiled PV array losing, and at what point does it make sense to wash the array?
Owners, developers, bankers and O&M providers all want to know when it makes sense to clean a PV array to recapture revenue that it would otherwise lose due to soiled modules. On the one hand, an overly soiled array represents a loss of money. On the other, a premature cleaning represents a waste of money. While you must consider many variables to reach a definitive washing decision, the economics of module washing are not complex: If having a clean array saves more money than it costs to wash the array, then washing it probably makes sense.
This article shares some of our analyses and observations on array soiling drawn from many years of operational experience. We have had successes and failures, which have led to interesting discoveries and some dead ends. We have based most of our research on utility-scale PV plants with high dc-to-ac ratios in sunny, arid locations. These plants are subject to a unique set of circumstances: They spend a lot of time at full power, have relatively steady soiling rates and are rarely exposed to enough rain to significantly clean the modules.
It is difficult to assess soiling and to determine when to wash an array because doing so requires a multi-variable equation. Every analysis is unique, based on a host of project-specific mitigating factors such as technology choices, racking configuration, inverter loading, PPA rates, time-of-day profiles, interconnection agreements and so forth. This means that there is no single right answer when it comes to the economics of washing. The methods for soiling analysis are as varied as the business model behind the PV plant, so each solution uses a unique combination of people, tools and number crunching. What all effective soiling analyses have in common, however, is that they distinguish between percent soiling and percent energy loss due to soiling. While the former is easier to quantify, it may not correlate to unrealized revenue.
For the purposes of this article, we define percent soiling as the reduction of expected output power between soiled dc source circuits (modules, strings, arrays) compared to the same source circuits under clean conditions. In field terms, percent soiling describes the ratio of dirty to clean IV-curve traces, extrapolated to nameplate power under standard test conditions (STC). Meanwhile, we define percent energy loss due to soiling as the difference between the metered energy for a given time period compared to the energy that could have been harvested over the same time period with a fully clean array. This term describes the energy that is available for recapture, which correlates directly to unrealized revenue. To differentiate between these two concepts, we need to quantify the amount of time that a PV power plant spends at or near full power.
Power limiting in PV arrays. It is common practice to deploy PV systems with a high array-to-inverter power ratio in an attempt to capture more energy and revenue. As a result of these high dc-to-ac loading ratios, many inverters spend a lot of time operating at full power, which forces the array off its maximum power point.
Extended periods of power limiting result in a characteristic flat-topped power curve, which people commonly refer to as power clipping. The more time a PV system operates at full power, the less concern is warranted over soiling. Soiling abatement is effective only if you can recapture the lost energy, which requires unused inverter capacity. The returns are diminished in PV systems with chronically clipped power profiles, because an inverter operating at full power cannot increase its output power based on an incremental increase in irradiance. If soiling is viewed as an effective reduction in plane-of-array (POA) irradiance, then a 5% increase in irradiance can overcome a 5% soiling level. For example, if a given inverter hits maximum output at a POA irradiance of 800 W/m2 under clean array conditions, then it follows that power clipping will start at 840 W/m2 in the 5% soiled case. Above 840 W/m2, the percent soiling literally becomes a moot point.
Figure 1 illustrates this point by comparing seasonal POA irradiance and plant production curves for the same PV system. The flat-topped curves on the left, labeled “Day 1 (August),” illustrate how the plant operates at full power for extended periods of time under high POA irradiance typical of summer. The curves on the right, labeled “Day 2 (November),” illustrate how the array operates below full power all day long under partially overcast conditions in the autumn. To compare the percent energy loss due to soiling for Day 1 versus Day 2, we first have to filter out the time spent at full power, as no energy is available for recapture during these hours.